Non-pyrethroid Unique Mode of Action
SumiShield™ 50WG has been designed for use in resistance management programmes:
If ITNs and IRS are to be deployed together in the same geographical location, IRS should be conducted with a non-pyrethroid insecticide
Reference: WHO technical brief for countries preparing malaria funding requests for the Global Fund (2020–2022) ISBN 978-92-4-000413-9 (© World Health Organization 2020). 3.3.3 Should IRS and ITNs be combined? (page 24 (30/75)
In areas of high coverage with LLINs, pyrethroids should not be used for IRS, as this will contribute to selection pressure.
Reference: Global plan for insecticide resistance management (GPIRM) in malaria vectors ISBN 978 92 4 156447 2 (© World Health Organization 2012). 3.4 Geographical areas in which LLINs and IRS are already used in combination (page 86)
Click here to learn about importance of the insecticide resistance management.
SumiShield™ 50WG contains clothianidin, a unique MoA active ingredient for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). With resistance to pyrethroids so widespread in Africa, Sumitomo Chemical chose a single active ingredient non-pyrethroid formulation so that true insecticide rotational strategies could be employed. SumiShield™ 50WG provides excellent control of malaria transmitting mosquitoes benefiting from a non-repellent, low hazard formulation, that is easy to transport and use.
The need for non-pyrethroid MoA active ingredient for IRS
Managing resistance to insecticides is one of the major issues facing the global fight against malaria. Resistance to at least one class of insecticides has been identified in over 75% of countries with on-going malaria transmission. The effectiveness of IRS is under threat due to the spread of pyrethroid resistance and the difficulty many countries find in rotating the class of insecticides they use year upon year, largely due to a lack of choice.
SumiShield™ 50WG is based on the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin. This was the first new MoA chemistry to be introduced to the vector control market in over 40 years. Following positive independent laboratory and field trials, SumiShield™ 50WG became the first vector control product evaluated and subsequently listed by WHO under the Prequalification (PQ) system.
SumiShield™ 50WG is odourless and trials show it has a low toxicity through skin contact and inhalation and is practically non-toxic to non-target organisms such as birds and fish.
How It Works
SumiShield™ 50WG has been designed as a single active ingredient formulation without a pyrethroid, thus making this formulation non-repellent. Pyrethroid and DDT treated surfaces hyper-activate resting mosquitoes causing them to be repelled. Mosquitoes are unaware of clothianidin alone and will rest for longer on treated surfaces and are more likely to die from exposure as they will absorb relatively large amounts of this insecticide. This increases effectiveness and reduces the opportunity for resistance to develop.
How to Use
SumiShield™ 50WG has been developed for IRS and can be sprayed on the inside of houses and residences, on walls and other surfaces that serve as resting places for mosquitoes. Delivered in small, easy to handle sachets, the product readily dissolves in water, with only one sachet required per tank, making transport simple and cost effective.
Currently the number of IRS products which are effective against mosquitoes that have resistance to all 4 classes of insecticides (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and organochlorines) is limited. Therefore, Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) is most important and should be considered carefully when insecticides for IRS are selected. Only by using the appropriate products can we help avoid the acceleration of insecticide resistance, maximize the impact of an IRS campaign programme and preserve the few tools we have, for as long as possible.
Listed below are selected publications highlighting some of the most important points relating to the use of insecticides and the value of single active ingredient products compared with mixtures. Critically, if mixtures are used then target insects must be fully susceptible to both active ingredients. The following should be considered before using insecticide mixtures for insect pest control:
- IRS with a pyrethroid should not be deployed in the same households or areas as ITNs (page xvi (18/161))
- Vector control programmes should diversify from pyrethroids in order to preserve their effectiveness (page 22 (44/161))
(Reference: GUIDELINES FOR MALARIA VECTOR CONTROL – ISBN 978-92-4-155049-9 (© World Health Organization 2019)
- Although pyrethroids will continue to be used for LLINS in the near term, they should not be generally used for IRS where there is high LLIN coverage (page 57 (55/132))
(Reference: GLOBAL PLAN FOR INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT IN MALARIA VECTORS ISBN 978 92 4 156447 2 (© World Health Organization 2012))
- Individual insecticides selected for use in mixtures should be highly effective
- Mixtures become less effective if resistance is already developing to one or both active ingredients
(Reference: IRAC International Insecticide Mixture Statement – Issued, September 2012 Version 1.0)
- The use of mixtures of insecticides will have the greatest IRM benefit if the insecticides in the mixture are from different MoA classes, and the target mosquito population is fully susceptible to both
(Reference: IRAC Insecticide Mode of Action Classification: Mosquito adulticides with WHO Prequalification (IRAC Mosquitoes MoA Poster V4.0, Jan ’21))
- The prevalence of resistance to either mixture partner must be very low in the exposed population, or the benefit of the mixture for resistance management is greatly reduced
(Reference: IRAC Mixtures for Insecticide Resistance Management in mosquito Vector Control (Mixtures for IRM in Vectors Poster V2.0, Apr ’14))
- The two chemicals should be equally persistent and equally effective in killing susceptible homozygotes (to conform with redundant killing)
- Both resistance genes must be rare
- No common resistance mechanism should be present
(Reference: Denholm and M. W. Rowland (1992) TACTICS FOR MANAGING PESTICIDE RESISTANCE IN ARTHROPODS: Theory and Practice. Annual. Rev. Entomol. 1992 37:91-112)
Video Guide to Successful Spraying
|Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in Malaria Vectors (GPIRM) Leaflet||English||Click here to access the GPIRM document via the WHO website|
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