Resistance to insecticides may be defined as ‘a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest species’ (IRAC).
The use of insecticides as such does not create resistance but it can develop through the overuse or misuse of an insecticide against a pest species. Resistance develops when naturally occurring genetic variation allows a small proportion of the population to resist and survive the eﬀects of the insecticide. If this advantage is maintained by continually using the same insecticide, the resistant insects will reproduce and the genetic changes that confer resistance are transferred from parents to oﬀspring so that eventually they become numerous within the population.
Major factors that influence resistance development :
- Application frequency
- Persistence of effect
- Rate of reproduction
- Population isolation
- Population isolation
Courtesy of IRAC
Vector control remains the most effective method of controlling malaria and other insect-borne diseases, but is highly reliant on just four classes of insecticide and only pyrethroids for use in LLINs (long lasting insecticide nets). The availability of only a few classes of insecticide for vector control and the heavy use of pyrethroids in LLINs as well as for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and in agriculture has caused significant insecticide resistance in some parts of the world. Areas with higher levels of malaria transmission and therefore widespread use of LLINs, namely Sub-Saharan Africa and India, are most at risk, making the development of new insecticides for use on bed nets a high priority to prevent this increasing problem.
Courtesy of IRAC Public Health
Sumitomo Chemical is working on several strategies to combat resistance in insect vectors and is also collaborating with the IVCC (Innovative Vector Control Consortium) to develop an innovative solution to resistance to pyrethroids in LLINs using the latest research and technology.
In the interim, our new IRS product SumiShield™ 50WG offers a breakthrough new mode of action insecticide and our pioneering Olyset Plus® is the first and only net on the market with a synergist incorporated on all surfaces to deliver knockdown and kill against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes exhibiting the major metabolic resistance mechanism.